This report is prepared by Ridhiman SS Kudachi, it is a simplistic idea on the possibility of sending manned missions to Mars leading to the possibility of limited human colonization. Following sections describe the details of my project.
• The Mission
• Orbital Module
• Entry Module
• Service Module
• Instrumentation Module
The goal of the mission is to send astronauts to Mars. The living quarters of the astronauts is located in the entry module. The orbital module deploys a lander.
It has its own nuclear engine and orbital maneuvering system to land on Mars. The entry module has the communication center in it. The service module has all the space suits and equipment and the instrumentation module is used to propel the satellite. During re-entry only the instrumentation module will burn up. The parts of the satellite that are not supposed to blow up are blunt like the entry module.The satellite has a hybrid engine that is used to reach Mars.
The fuel is HTPB and the oxidizer is liquid oxygen. It has a pressure fed feed-system for attitude control. It has nuclear power as solar panels are not that useful so far away from the Sun. It is 65 meters in length and it will have a diameter of 41.5 meters. The nuclear engine islocate MODULE The orbital in the instrumentation module.
It is located on the left part of the satellite. It mainly functions as living quarters for the astronauts. The orbital module is upgraded to have a tiny nuclear engine and orbital maneuvering system, so it is capable of operating independently as a self-sustainable satellite after it is detached along with the service module.
The orbital module is detached along with the service module before landing as it contains equipment for the astronauts to explore Mars. It is programmed to land near the equator to explore Martian volcanoes as most of them are near the equator of Mars. The nuclear engine in the orbital module is also used to steer the satellite during re-entry. The engine has a thick outer covering to shield the orbital module The orbital module is going to deploy a lander after it gets close to the surface of Mars. The lander will land on Mars along with the astronauts. The service module supplies equipment to the astronauts to explore at this time. The orbital module has pillars that eject from the module after it is detached from the satellite to land on Mars.
It has sensors so that when the orbital module is reaching the ground the pillars will eject. Some astronauts are going to stay behind in the entry module to inform the crew in case anything goes wrong. It has a storage compartment that is used to store all the materials gathered from the Martian expedition. The storage compartment is in a vacuum to prevent the materials from mixing with the outside air to preserve them.The astronauts have a separate area in the orbital module to stay. The living quarters of the astronauts have a sucker toilet instead of a flush toilet as flushes won’t work in microgravity. The beds are different from the ones on Earth. Because of microgravity, the beds of the astronauts are stuck to the wall. The astronauts have to strap themselves to the bed to prevent themselves from floating in their sleep.
The service module is connected to the orbital module after it is detached to supply equipment before landing. It is used to store all the equipment like space suits, the MLV (Martian land vehicle), special containers that carry Martian soil/ice in them and the MAV (Martian aerial vehicle) The containers are made of a material that is able to withstand the freezing temperature of Mars as well as being able to withstand the huge amounts of rust on Mars. The material used will be a reinforced version of Indian steel as it doesn’t rust and can cope well with the cold. The materials gathered in the containers after the expedition are stored in a special compartment in the orbital module. The MLV or the Martian land vehicle is used to travel on land on Mars. It is mostly like a hybrid between a car, buggy, and a tiny rocket. It has a few special features to cope with the terrain. The ML Vhas an electric engine powered by nuclear instead of gasoline as there is no oxygen to burn there.
The rockets carry their own oxygen as there is very little oxygen on Mars. It has a rocket at the back to boost the MLV while scaling large mountains and volcanoes. It also has more weight as there is less gravity on Mars. The MLV is made of a rust-free material as there is a lot of rust on Martian soil. The MLV has a sensor on top of it to analyze the terrain far ahead that the astronauts cannot see. The sensor can send that information to the astronauts so they can change the direction of the MLV if there is something dangerous ahead. The MAV or the Martian aerial vehicle used to travel in the air on Mars. It looks like a hybrid between a rocket and a glider. The MAV has two rockets, one below the plane and one on the tail of the MAV. The rockets will carry their own oxygen as.MISSION MARS oxygen is in very low quantity on Mars.
The MAV wingspan will be very long as the air on Mars is not dense as compared to the air on Earth. The rockets will also be used to provide a boost during lift off as there is less dense air on Mars. The MAV will be able to fold its wings to minimize the amount of space it takes up. Both the MLV and MAV will be used to explore Martian landmarks like volcanoes, poles, mountains and find out the reason some unusual anomalies and patterns happen on Mars.
The entry module is much bigger than the other modules as it contains the communication centre to be in contact with Earth. It also contains the computer which controls various functions in the satellite. It is located at the middle of the satellite. It is used to steer the satellite to Mars, it will stay in the orbit of Mars while The orbital module is detached to go to the surface.
The entry module is used to steer the satellite to Mars. There are 2 control panels in the steering system, one of them is big as it can be used to steer the satellite and the other one is small as it is for attitude control. The control panels have a simulation of the satellite on the panels. With the help of the simulation the astronauts will steer the satellite to Mars.The entry module has a communication centre to communicate with Earth. The Communication centre is used to inform Earth in the unlikely event that anything goes wrong. The communication centre is powered by nuclear energy instead of solar energy. It has a big computer that controls functions like attitude control, thrust, oxygen,detaching the orbital module, steering the satellite, applying brakes, etcetera. The computer is powered by both solar energy and nuclear energy. The computer is located beside the communication centre.
The instrumentation module is the propulsion system for the satellite to Mars. It has solar panels attached to it to get energy from the sun. The instrumentation module has a nuclear engine since solar panels are not very useful so far away from the sun. The instrumentation module has big solar panels to maximize the amount of energy received from the solar panels. The nuclear engine in the instrumentation module is going to also provide energy for the satellite. It powers the communication centre, the main computer and electricity. The nuclear engine will start to propel the satellite only after it travels 0.125 AU as the solar panels are close enough to the sun to propel it.
The reason it will be passive till 0.125 AU is to save power so that the engine can focus on other tasks like powering the other things in the satellite. The satellite has a solar panel in the instrumentation module to power the satellite. It has Sun trackers to maximize the amount of energy the solar panel gets from the Sun. The satellite has very big solar panels compared to normal satellites for 2 reasons. The satellite will be big and needs much more energy than other satellites, thus big solar panels. The other reason is that so far away from the Sun it is difficult to get energy with a small solar panel.